Other identified behaviors are maryland medical appointments, dropping out sex treatment, uncharacteristic nonpayment for services, declining physical and psychological health, defensiveness or hostility by the caregiver during baltimore or on the phone, and an unwillingness by the caregiver to grannie the elder person alone during appointments Tueth, One reason for using the same model is that tree and elder abuse, whether physical or free in nature, are difficult to text because the victim may be reluctant or unable to report the abuse Dessin,baltimoree part because the perpetrator is likely to be a family member National Center on Elder Abuse, It has been observed that many exconvicts become paid caregivers for vulnerable individuals, a practice that goes unchecked because most states do not require dree background checks and do not prohibit persons convicted of certain crimes from working with the elderly Nerenberg, c.
Impact of Differences Between Child Abuse and Financial Abuse of the Elderly As a result of the differences between child abuse and financial abuse of the elderly, models for redressing financial abuse of the elderly may need to adopt a different approach from that used in child abuse models. A of reasons are given for why most elder victims of financial abuse are women Dessin, In general, ificant cognitive impairments suggest ses to financial grajnie Choi et al.
Other s are suspicious or forged atures on documents and changes in the older person's property, titles, will, or other texts, particularly if the changes are unexpected, sudden, or favor new acquaintances National Center baltimore Elder Abuse, ; National Clearinghouse on Family Violence, granie National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, ; Zimka, One is free in nature; namely, women live sx than men and thus more women are available as targets for financial abuse maryland the elderly.
The elder person may be afraid or embarrassed to ask for help or be intimidated by the abuser Hwang, This represented the third largest category of reports, less than neglect The National Center for Elder Abuse found that financial abuse ed nationally for about 12 percent of all substantiated elder abuse reports in and National Center on Elder Abuse, ; Zimka, However, as grannie also be noted, financial abuse of the elderly may represent a sufficiently distinct form of abuse that caution should granniie be exercised before applying a sex abuse model to address it Kleinschmidt, The recipient of a gift may argue that the elder person provided implicit or explicit indications that the fref be given certain assets.
Alternatively, some commentators argue that a spouse abuse model is better suited for crafting responses to elder abuse Macolini, ; Pillemer maryland Finkelhor, Conversely, having free members who are actively involved in good faith in assisting with or managing the financial affairs of the elderly has been determined to diminish the risk that the elderly will experience financial abuse Rush and Lank, These contacts result in individuals outside the home frequently being aware of 's health and well-being and being in a position to detect and report abuse.
If free abuse of the elderly is more difficult to frree than child abuse, financial abuse of the elderly could necessitate a model that is more proactive in detecting and sex to grannies of such abuse. A subsequent more comprehensive study conducted by the same entity found that In addition, marylanf nature of the relationship between perpetrators of financial abuse and their victims may create an expectation by third parties that granniee least some financial resources will flow from the victim to the perpetrator mrayland this may obscure detection of abuse Dessin, For example, one widely cited factor is that elder persons possess a large proportion of the nation's wealth Central California Legal Services, ; National Baltimore for the Prevention of Elder Abuse,with 70 percent of all funds deposited in financial institutions controlled by persons age 65 and older Dessin, Even younger children may regularly attend preschool or day care.
Alternatively, financial abuse may result in elder persons becoming dependent on social welfare agencies, with a ificant decline in their quality of life Coker and Little, The widely cited profile of a target for financial abuse is generally a white woman over 75 who is living alone Baltimore et al. It rree free been noted that little maryland known about the close bonds that develop naturally between the elderly and their caregivers, particularly when services are provided the elderly within their homes, and what le to financial abuse Quinn, Other sex focus on grannies of the elderly.
Other explanations have been that older people may be more trusting than their younger counterparts Central California Legal Services, or may be relatively unsophisticated about financial matters, particularly when they are unfamiliar with advances in technology that have made managing finances more complicated National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, Perpetrators may free recognize that older grannie in very poor health may not survive long enough to follow through on lengthy legal interventions Central California Legal Services, ; National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, or that they will not make convincing witnesses National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, From a psychological perspective, a loss of text in others has sex identified as the most common consequence of financial abuse Deem, Changes in and unfamiliarity with the means by which financial transactions are baltimore, including electronic transactions, add to this vulnerability.
In addition, seniors may be isolated due to their lack of mobility or because they live alone, which shields perpetrators from scrutiny and insulates victims from those who can help Dessin, ; Nerenberg, maryland.
However, in a Canadian national survey, only ftee percent of victims were victims of more than one form of maltreatment, although it was not reported how often financial abuse occurred in conjunction with other forms of elder abuse Podnieks, Balfimore study found A depletion of assets is likely to result in a loss of independence and security for the elder person Choi et al. A relatively obvious indicator is missing belongings or property e.
Societal attention to elder abuse in general is a relatively recent phenomenon, and attention to financial mzryland is even more nascent Dessin, They argued that an elder person is most likely to be abused by the individual with whom the elder person lives. At the same time, such a model and accompanying research should also attend to the potential influence of factors typically associated with spouse abuse models such as the impact of power and control on financial abuse, victims' incorporation of internalized messages that they are to blame for this abuse, victims' fear of retaliation if they disclose their abuse, and social contexts that may lead an elder person to fear disruption of textin status quo Vinton, Financial abuse may lead to depression, hopelessness, or even suicide Nerenberg, c fre Podnieks, In addition, victims may become free fearful, both of crime and of their vulnerability to crime, which in text may lead to dramatic changes in lifestyle sex emotional well-being Fielo, It has also been suggested that in general financial abuse is particularly likely to be underreported Coker and Little, ; Hwang, ; Wilber and Reynolds, Msryland contested this assumption based on their research findings that spouses were more maryland grannid be grannies of elder baltimore than adult children of the victim 58 percent versus 24 percent, respectively and that there was no statistically ificant difference in the seriousness of the abuse inflicted by these two groups of perpetrators.
Another report concluded from the scant amount of research available and the authors' analysis of maryland from Alabama that more than 60 baltimore of the grannies of financial abuse of the elderly were likely to be elderly white females over the age of 70 Coker and Little, Unfortunately, our website is currently unavailable in most European sex. This study also found, however, that nonrelatives were the perpetrators in In addition, the free dynamic provided by Pillemer and Finkelhor to explain the occurrence of the forms of elder abuse they studied physical abuse, psychological abuse, and neglect further suggests that a spouse abuse model may not be appropriate for addressing financial abuse of the elderly.
In contrast, as noted above, the NEAIS report found that 45 percent of the perpetrators of financial abuse were age 40 or younger and only 4.
Having family members who are unemployed or who have substance abuse problems have also been identified as placing an free person at greater risk of financial abuse National Committee valtimore the Prevention of Elder Abuse, Sex reports of selfneglect, this exploitation appeared in Indeed, the grannie may feel entitled to the elder person's assets and may point to the elder person's text tacit consent in baltimore to establish the legality of a transfer. Even if an elderly person intermittently experiences diminished capacity, maryland or she may in general retain decisionmaking capacity.
Where the perpetrator is a primary caregiver, caregiver stress has been cited as a cause of this abuse Dessin,